Education is the most important discovery of mankind. In particular it is the basic factor which counts for the development of our civilization. It is the process of acquisition of knowledge, skill, beliefs, values and habits. Often we encounter many questions such as what is Education? that how it is originated? that why it is necessary? that what are the Types of Education? that what are the different characteristics of Education? In this article we have tried to answer these questions.
Education is the guiding to light in the path of our success. In other words it can be defined as the process of acquiring knowledge, belief, values, skill and habits, that teaches us to be a true human being. Whatever we learnt whether imposed or willingly comes under the it’s domain.
It can be formal, informal and non-formal. It employs different educational techniques and methods such as lecture method, storytelling, learning by doing etc. Generally it starts from pre-school to university stage.
According to Aristotle,” Education is the creation of a sound mind in a sound body.’
John Dewey on the other hand opines that,” Education is the process of continuous reconstruction of experience.
Therefore, education can be termed as the basic needs of one’s life. Because it cures the different social evils and discrimination from the society. An educated person contributes great share in the national development. It promotes especially brotherhood, fraternity, liberty and establishes justice. It is a process of rediscovering oneself and contributes to bring peace and harmony in the society.
“Plants are developed by cultivation and men by Education”
Education is a lifelong process that brings change of behavior in a desired way. Even though different scholars have different opinion regarding origin of the term education. However the term education is specifically believed to be derived from the following Latin words.
(i) Educare which means “bring up” or “rise up”
(ii) Educere which means “lead out” or “draw out”
(iii) E & Duco where “E” means “out of” and “Duco” means “to draw out”
(iv) Educatum which means “Act of Teaching/Training”
There are no definite historical resources found which can tell us about when education was originated. However it is believed that education system is persisting from the pre-historic period. In that period the elders of the social groups teaches the younger the basic skills, knowledge and habit that is required to survive in those days like hunting, making weapons etc.
Education in the form of schools was developed in ancient Egypt, Greece, Alexandria etc. In that period particularly philosopher like Plato, Aristotle etc influenced the education system of that time. In the same way in China Confucius played a major role in structuring and reforming the education system.
Similarly, Arabian countries also develops a good example education system. Consequently, it develops in the Middle Ages, Islamic Science and Mathematics. In fact we always been indebted to them for the discovery of Algebra.
India is one of the oldest civilization of the world. India also exhibited a good education system. In ancient India Gurukula system was the primary system of education.In order to get education the students resides with other students in Guru’s residence so that to learn different skills & education. Most important discoveries such as of zero, surgery and plastic surgery, Ayurveda, yoga etc are the main contribution of Indian Education system.
Education is that process which makes us different from animals. That is to say it teaches us how to live, how to communicate, morals, ethics, values etc. When we go to school sometime we asks our self that why education is necessary? that what happen if we do not study? that is there any benefit of become educated? Here we try to enlist some reasons why it is necessary?
It is essential for opting a good and suitable carrier. A good carrier not only gives you money but also mental satisfaction. Additionally, a satisfying carrier is a key to happy and healthy life.
It teaches us to become self-dependent. It helps a person to take his own decisions as well as to be financially independent. Also it teaches us to do our job our self.
Education helps us to live a quality life. By quality life we mean a happy, healthy and peaceful life.
It builds confidence in people to accomplish difficult tasks. It helps to achieve our goals.
It gives us knowledge of the society as well as the greater world. It gives us knowledge about what is happening and what is going to happen and to develop our strategy accordingly.
It teaches us live like human being. Consequently, it develops qualities like honesty, mercy, forgiveness etc. Such qualities tends to create a world that is safe and peaceful.
It helps us to become financially sound. Additionally, a well educated person get more chance for highly paid jobs. Moreover, people with highest qualification also gets high salaries.
A well educated person contributes more towards society. That is to say such person helps the society to transform and develop to a new era of development.
It gives such knowledge so that no one can deceive any person neither by cheating nor by fooling.
It is essential for people to live a mentally healthy life. A mentally healthy life keeps our life away from stress, depression, tension etc.
It builds humans which in turn builds nation. A person participate in nation building not only by the monetary component as well as the service he provided.
Educational thinkers, scholars and philosophers have divided education into different types and categories. Among these the most popular division is types based on institution. According to this division it can be of following types:
It is the type of education which is provided in certain institutions like school, college, universities etc. It is designed with fixed aims and objective that is provided according to the curriculum. That is to say it has fixed time table, examination system and discipline. Moreover, it is provided in accordance with the rules and regulations of the concerned school and college. The characteristics are:-
(a) It is pre determined and pre planned.
(b) There is limitation of time and routine.
(c) It has limitation as to space.
(d) It has limitation to age.
(e) It follows systematic curriculum.
(f) It is imparted by qualified teachers.
(g) It observes strict discipline
(h) It is methodical in nature.
Informal or incidental education is one which occurs automatically in the process of living. It is received by one by living with others, such as cycling, horse riding, fishing etc. The main characteristic of it are:
(a) It is incidental and spontaneous.
(b) It is not pre planned and deliberate.
(c) It has no limitation of institution or space..
(d) There is no prescribed syllabus and time table.
(e) There is no limitation of time and age.
(f) There are many agencies of involved in the implementation of it.
(g) Out of school education is another term of it.
It is any organized systematic educational activity carried outside the framework of the established formal system. It is provided at the convenient place, time and level of understanding or mental growth of children and adult. The main characteristics are:-
(a) It is open ended as well as non-competitive.
(b) It is structured and planned but outside the sphere of formal education.
(c) It is consciously and deliberately organized as well as implemented.
(d) It is programmed to serve the need of the homogeneous groups.
(e) It possesses flexibility in design of the curriculum and process and evaluation.
(f) Here teacher pupil relationship is much more intimate.
(g) Attendance is voluntary.
(h) Here many students are working persons.
Education is a process of continuous reconstruction of experience. Therefore education exhibits a wide range of characteristics. Among which the most important are:-
It occurs only in social environment and without it no one can acquire experiences. As we know experience is the most important ingredient of education and it can only be perceived in social environment, so it is a social process.
The different situations and strange incidents that occurs in our life and educational process, both of them influences our life to a great extent. Therefore, we can call life is as education and education is as life.
It is directly or indirectly helps in the all round development of child. Since the aim of it is the development of child to it’s fullest extent. So, education is development and development itself life.
In the light of it new experiences is constructed. As a result an individuals can create new things.
Man acquire different experiences in different situations. In due course of time some of these were excluded and some were converted and new experiences fills the empty spaces. In human life this conversion and reconstruction of experiences is termed as education.
Every society has it’s own rites and rituals, ethics, morality, language, culture, beliefs, etc. It helps the society to conserve them.
It is an art. It develops the inherent qualities of child in beautiful way like Arts. Teaching is also an Art. Therefore the teacher helps the students good and healthy personality under his guidance.
Every society has it’s own moral values. With the help of education people can develop these moral values. Therefore, it is termed as socializing process.
It brings change of human behavior in a desired way. Good and ethical behavior makes us a good person and helps in our development.