The term ‘National Development’ is very broad and comprehensive. It includes all aspects of the development of a nation namely, political, social, economic etc. So, it is a dynamic and revolutionary development of the society. Moreover, it is both qualitative and quantitative.

                         According to John Vaizey, ”National development is the total effect of all citizens, forces and addition to stock of physical, human resources, knowledge and skill.”

                         According to UN Decade report, ”National development is growth plus change in turn is social, cultural as well as economic and qualitative as well as quantitative.”

                         National development is the change in growth and development, which includes social, cultural and economic change. It is the ability of a country to improve the social welfare of the people. It would be the expansion and growth of people in the a defined territory or government.

                          In 1971, UNO gave the factors for National Development:-

  1. Equal living standard for all.
  2. Equal share of all in profit.
  3. Similarly, Equal distribution of income and capital.
  4. Expansion of facilities regarding education, health,, shelter and social welfare.
  5. Preservation of environment.

“Education is a human right with immense power to transform. On its foundation rest the cornerstones of freedom, democracy and sustainable human development.” 

-Kofi Annan

Scope of National Development: 
  1. National Development seeks to remove poverty.
  2. It improves the National Income as well as per-capita income.
  3. It develops quality in Education.
  4. In addition, it brings revolutionary change in the field of Agriculture.
  5. It develops Transport and Communication.
  6. Development of Medical facilities.
  7. On the contrary it controls pollution and environmental hazard.
  8. Use of Science and Technology.
  9. Preservation and development of nature and environment.
  10. Development of the economic condition of the people living in the particular country.
  11. Development of the socio-economic condition of the people.
  12. Introduction of welfare scheme of people for the betterment of their life and standard of living.
  13. Development of an impartial and well-organized political system.
  14. It encompasses the preservation, enrichment and development of culture.
  15. Moreover, it promotes the concept of sustainable development. 

Read also: 

An Essay on Education

LEARNING: It’s meaning, nature and types

Idealism In education

Factors affecting National Development:
  1. Economic: Economic development is the one of the major factor affecting national development. In an economy where the working population of the nation produces goods and services at higher rate would develop more rapidly than others.
  2. Political: The political system of a nation also determines the rate of national development. In democratic government it is easier to achieve the desired goal because it is represented by its own people.
  3. Social: The society and its stratification also influence the national development. In orthodox societies it become hard to take a decision unanimously which would benefit the nation. Instead caste, class, creed, colour etc creates biases.
  4. Increasing population: Population of a nation also influence national development of a nation. In countries like China, India, Bangladesh people were often deprived of the basic needs due top its massive population explosion.
  5. Socio-cultural: The cultural traits persisted in different societies determines the way of national development.
  6. Modernization: Modernization of societies helps for a faster growth in national development.
  7. Psychological condition: Mental status of people of a nation, their mental health and hygiene also gives directions to national development.
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