Pragmatism is a modern school of philosophy and plays an important role in educational system. Pragmatism is essentially a humanistic philosophy which stress that human creates his own values and course of activity.
According to William James ”Pragmatism is a temper of mind, an attitude, it is also a theory of the nature of ideas and truths; and finally it is theory about reality”
The term ‘Pragmatism’ is derived from Greek word ‘Pragma’ meaning activity or work done. Another group of thinkers, however, believes that ‘Pragmatism’ is derived from ‘Pragmatikos’ meaning practicability or experimentation.
Pragmatism believes in change. Therefore pragmatism induces to do useful and practical work. Education on the basis on this philosophy makes the child worthy and independent citizen of the society. According to this philosophy, education contains those important and practical and useful activities which make man self-dependent and useful member of the society.
“We do not learn from experience… we learn from reflecting on experience.”
The curriculum reflects the aims of education. The curriculum should be framed on the basis of certain basic principles. The principle of curriculum construction in pragmatism are:
The principal philosophy of pragmatic method of teaching is practical utility. The child is the central figure in this method. The essence of pragmatic method is learning especially through personal experience of the child. To a pragmatic education means preparation for practical life. The pragmatism has given more emphasis on following method of teaching.
In naturalism the teacher merely is an onlooker. Idealism regards him as an indispensable authority. In pragmatism the teacher is neither of the two, he stands midway. According to pragmatism a teacher is useful even though is not indispensable. The role of the teacher are as follows:
Although pragmatism does not believe in external restraint and discipline enforced by the superior authority of the teacher and the award of punishments. But it advocates discipline based on the principles of child activity and interest. It believes in engaging the children in free as well as purposeful real activities of human life. In short description include: